GRAMMAR 2: CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

GRAMMAR 2: CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

Hello everybody! This week we are going to talk about grammar, in particular, about conditional sentences. What are conditional sentences in English grammar? What is the difference between the first and the second type? And between the second and the third type? When do you have to use one or another? Go on and find out the answer.

Conditional sentences (also called ‘if clauses’) are sentences that describe the result of an action that might happen (in the present or future) or might have happened but didn’t (in the past). There are four types: Zero, First, Second and Third conditional.

THE ZERO CONDITIONAL

When do you have to use it?

Use it when the result of an action will always happen (universal truths, facts).

 

Structure:

If + present simple + present simple.

 

Examples:

If you heat ice, it melts.

If you touch a fire, you get burned.

If you heat water to 100 degrees, it boils.

 

 

THE FIRST CONDITIONAL

When do you have to use it?

Use the first conditional when you are talking about things that you think are likely to happen in the future.

 

Structure:

If + present simple + will + infinitive.

If + present simple + can + infinitive.

If + present simple + may + infinitive.

If + present simple + must + infinitive.

If + present simple + shall + infinitive.

If + present simple + imperative. (Orders)

 

Examples:

If you use a lot your mobile phone, you may get headaches.

If you don´t work hard, you will lose your job.

If you touch fire, it melts.

If you come, bring the book.

If you see Paul, give him the money.

If you´re in the classroom, shut up!

 

 

SECOND CONDITIONAL

When do you have to use it?

Use the second conditional to talk about a hypothetical or imaginary situation in the present or future and it consequence.

 

Structure:

If + past simple, would + infinitive.

If + past simple, could + infinitive.

If + past simple, should + infinitive.

If + past simple, might + infinitive.

 

Examples:

If you were here, I would show you my new car.

If I had more money, I would buy a bigger house.

If I won the lottery, I might go camping.

 

Notes:

  • Remember that you can use second conditionals beginning ‘If I were you, I´d…’ to give advice. For example: If I were you, I´d think it twice. Here, you can´t use ‘If I was you’.
  • You can also use ‘would/wouldn´t + infinitive’ (without an ‘if clause’) when you talk about imaginary situations. For example: I´d never buy a house as big as yours. / My ideal holiday would be a month in Scotland.

 

THE THIRD CONDITIONAL

When do we have to use it?

Use the third conditional to talk about hypothetical/ imaginary situations in the past (which didn´t happen) and its consequence.

 

Structure:

If + had + past participle, would have + past participle.

If + had + past participle, could have + past participle.

If + had + past participle, might have + past participle.

 

Examples:

If I hadn´t gone to the party, I wouldn´t have met my husband.

We would have arrive at seven if we hadn´t got lost.

If I had remembered your advice, I wouldn´t have been so stressed yesterday.

 

 

And that is all for today. Do you have any doubts? If so, leave us a comment. Once more, thank you for visiting our blog!

 

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